- Anecdote: a brief story that captures the essence of the issue or situation
- Quotation: a voice not your own that speaks to or exemplifies the problem or issue
- News: the writer gives the reader the who-what- where-why- of the situation or issue
- Background: the writer gives a brief history of the issue or situation
- Announcement: the writer tells the reader what he or she is going to say about the issue or situation and takes an attitude.
- also consider...a statistic, deliberate contradiction, starting fact or idea
A dictionary definition
A question to the reader
A lead that isn't focused
Excerpt taken from Nancie Atwell 2002," Lessons That Change Writers"